Birthstones by Month
Traditionally, a birthstone is associated with each month of the year. For example, the birthstone for January is a garnet, while babies born in April get a diamond as their birthstone. The origin of birthstones is believed to date back to the breastplate of Aaron which contained twelve gemstones representing the twelve tribes of Israel. The idea of birthstones has a place in many traditions, customs, and belief systems and continue to hold up to modern traditions.
For babies born in January, the Garnet is the perfect gem to represent their birthstone. This beautiful stone, which is most commonly red but can be found in a range of other colours, symbolises peace, prosperity and good health. Some say it even has the power to give the wearer eternal happiness, health and wealth.If you’re looking to purchase a Garnet for yourself or a loved one, it is a great way to celebrate friendship, toast a 2nd wedding anniversary or recognise the wearer’s January birthday.
Garnets commonly come in a wide spectrum of reds, but can also be green, pink, colourless or blue. The price of the piece will likely increase for more rare colours like green or blue. Garnets can also be judged along some of the same parameters as diamonds, with clarity and cut affecting the beauty and value of the stone.
It should be noted that some Garnets have inclusions that are part of the beauty of the overall stone (like “horsetails” in Demantoid Garnets, or Hessonite Garnets which sometimes have a “turbulent” look). So you may discover that you like the unique look these inclusions bring to the piece.
Try to find a cut that spreads light evenly over the surface of the gemstone. This will help to bring out the overall beauty and colour of the garnet. No matter which stone or piece you choose, remember that the Garnet is known for its durability and richness of colour, so your investment will not only have great emotional value but could be a piece that stands the test of time.
For individuals with February birthdays, the Amethyst makes a perfect birthstone. This month is often cold, dark and short for many people around the world, so the Amethyst—which is often associated with qualities of peace, courage and stability—is the right gem for individuals who need a little extra warmth and strength this time of year.
A beautiful purple quartz, the Amethyst is an easily recognisable gem.
Whether you’re purchasing an Amethyst for yourself or a loved one, you’re making an investment in beauty that will stand the test of time. Amethyst makes a great gift for individuals born in February, or as a celebratory milestone for a 6th or 17th wedding anniversary.
Of course, you’re also welcome to purchase Amethyst “just because.” It’s a beautiful gemstone that ranges in colour from a light pinkish violet to a deep red or blue purple violet and complements a number of metals and settings. It’s a durable gemstone that works well with warm or cool colours, so it’s safe to say it goes well beyond special occasion jewellery and can be worn every day, as well.
Amethyst often has “stripes” or layers of colour from how and when it was formed, so it takes a skilled gemmologist to cut and polish the stone to show the overall colour of the stone evenly. Avoid brownish or rust coloured tints to the stone and be careful the colour is not too deep or it can appear black in some lights. Like diamonds, you can also look for clarity in an Amethyst. Most gemmologists will favour a richly coloured stone with some minor inclusions (not eye-visible), since the colour of this gem is so highly prized. In lighter coloured Amethysts, visible inclusions will greatly reduce the value of the gemstone.
Since Amethyst is relatively plentiful, the price differential in carat sizes isn’t usually terribly significant, so this can be a great gemstone for statement jewellery pieces (though you may not be able to cost-effectively recreate some of Elizabeth Taylor’s memorable Amethyst jewellry or the “Kent Amethysts” owned by the British crown).
Larger rings, earrings or pendants can make a stunning addition to a jewellery collection, but even smaller Amethysts can be deeply and richly coloured, making subtler pieces beautiful, too.
For the lucky individuals born in March, two birthstones are associated with this early spring month: Bloodstone and Aquamarine. Both stones are very different from one another in appearance, but each share a similar symbolism of preserving or enhancing the health of the wearer.
Aquamarine is the more striking of the two, a beautiful stone to purchase for any occasion, but especially for someone with a March birthday or to celebrate or re-kindle romantic love. The colour ranges from nearly clear to a strong dark blue and is a perfect way to communicate affection, tranquillity, and peace. Like diamonds, aquamarine can be judged along the lines of cut, colour, clarity, and carat weight. Since aquamarine can be very lightly coloured (and sometimes appear almost colourless), cut is very important to the overall appearance of the stone and how saturated or even the colour appears.
While you’re of course welcome to choose the colour that most appeals to you, it’s generally accepted that lighter coloured aquamarines are less valuable than the stronger, deeper hues of blue or blue green. Most cut gems do not have inclusions that are visible to the eye, and some rarer or more expensive aquamarines are available without visible inclusions, as well. Since aquamarine crystals can grow to be quite large, larger cut gemstones are possible to purchase as a part of beautiful statement pieces. Princess Diana had a famous aquamarine ring and bracelet set, and the Queen has a breathtaking set of aquamarine jewels that include a large tiara, necklace, earrings, and bracelet.
While you may not be looking to buy in the “crown jewels” range, even smaller Aquamarines make for lovely solitaires or companion jewels in larger pieces. And, of course, the symbolism or sentiment behind the purchase can make Aquamarine priceless to the wearer.
For those fortunate to be born in April, the most prized gemstone of all is their birthstone. For this month, Diamonds truly are a girl’s (or a boy’s) best friend.
Whether you’re celebrating an April birthday or a 60th or 75th wedding anniversary, giving a Diamond means giving a perfectly beautiful gift that will truly stand the test of time.
May birthdays fall right in the heart of spring, and the Emerald is the perfect gem to symbolise and celebrate this month. Prized for its brilliant and beautiful green colour, the Emerald is often favoured by the rich and famous to wear as statement pieces for big events. Like the Diamond and other gemstones, Emeralds can be judged according to the 4Cs: colour, cut, clarity and carat weight. These gems are highly prized and intensely coloured ones can be quite rare. Most gemologists agree that it all comes down to colour when purchasing an Emerald. colour should be evenly distributed and not too dark. Rare Emeralds will appear as a deep green-blue, while lighter coloured gems are more common (and therefore, often more reasonably priced).
Like other beryls, Emeralds often have inclusions that are visible without a microscope. Most gemmologists readily accept this about these gemstones and don’t detract too much from the overall value of the stone when inclusions are present. Again, it’s all about the hue and saturation of the gem. Cut is very important on an Emerald because it helps to maximise that desirable green colour. Many Emeralds are cut into an Emerald shape, which helps to make a bright stone with sparkle while minimising inclusions or fissures.
Unlike some gemstones, which can maintain a relatively standard price range no matter the size, you will see a wide price range between smaller Emeralds and larger ones. Some of the most famous Emeralds in private collections or museums today are literally hundreds of carats and are considered to be priceless. Angelina Jolie, Elizabeth Taylor, and the British monarchy all have worn famously large and beautiful Emerald jewellery.
June is one of only two months that has three birthstones associated with it, giving the lucky people born in June a choice of gemstones between Pearl, Alexandrite, and Moonstone. The rarest of these is the Pearl.
Pearls are the only gemstones made by living creatures. Mollusks produce pearls by depositing layers of calcium carbonate around microscopic irritants that get lodged in their shells—usually not a grain of sand, as commonly believed. While any shelled mollusk can technically make a pearl, only two groups of bivalve mollusks (or clams) use mother-of-pearl to create the iridescent “nacreous” pearls that are valued in jewellery. These rare gemstones don’t require any polishing to reveal their natural lustre.
Appropriately, the name “pearl” comes from the Old French perle, from the Latin perna meaning “leg,” referencing the leg-of-mutton shape of an open mollusk shell. Because perfectly round, smooth natural pearls are so uncommon, the word “pearl” can refer to anything rare and valuable.
The majority of pearls sold today are cultured or farmed by implanting a grafted piece of shell (and sometimes a round bead) into pearl oysters or freshwater pearl mussels. Pearls are very soft, ranging between 2.5 and 4.5 on the Mohs scale. They are sensitive to extreme heat and acidity; in fact, calcium carbonate is so susceptible to acid that pearls will dissolve in vinegar. The finest pearls have a reflective lustre, making them appear creamy white with an iridescent sheen that casts many colourful hues. Cultured freshwater pearls can also be dyed yellow, green, blue, brown, pink, purple, or black. Black pearls—which are mostly cultured because they are so rare in nature—aren’t actually black but rather green, purple, blue, or silver.
Pearls used to be found in many parts of the world, but natural pearling is now confined to the Persian Gulf waters near Bahrain. Australia owns one of the world’s last remaining pearl diving fleets, and still harvests natural pearls from the Indian Ocean. Today, most freshwater cultured pearls come from China. South Sea pearls are cultured along the northwestern coastline of Australia, the Philippines, and Indonesia.
Besides being one of three birthstones for June, the pearl is also the birthstone for babies born under the signs of Gemini and Cancer, and frequently gifted on 1st, 3rd, 12th and 30th wedding anniversaries.
Ruby, the king of precious gems, is the birthstone for fortunate folks born in July. Symbolic of the passion and energy associated with the colour red, the vibrant ruby is said to bring love and success. Whether you’re showing your love for someone born in July, or celebrating a 15th or 40th wedding anniversary, there’s no better gift than ruby. Popular since ancient times, these precious gems are said to rouse the senses, amplify positive energy and guarantee health, wisdom, wealth and success in love.
Like diamonds, rubies are evaluated using the 4Cs, plus size and geographic origin. The most important feature of a ruby is its red colour, as other hues of this gem species are considered Sapphire. The finest ruby is a vibrant purplish red, losing value (and classification as a ruby) as it leans toward brown, orange or even pink. Rubies also require good transparency. Opaque rubies are much less valuable, even if they display cat’s eye or asterism. All natural rubies contain imperfections, like rutile inclusions called “silk.” These can actually increase the value of ruby (when displaying a rare cat’s eye or star effect) and are often used to determine a gem’s authenticity.
A valuable gift to symbolize passion, protection and prosperity, ruby is the perfect way to express powerful emotions.
In 2016, August joined June and December as the one of the three birth months represented by three gems. The original birthstone for August was Sardonyx, and then Peridot was added, becoming August’s primary gem. The addition of spinel, which can be found in a variety of colours, gives August babies a plethora of options. Though Peridot is widely recognized by its brilliant lime green glow, the origin of this gem’s name is unclear. Most scholars agree that the word “Peridot” is derived from the Arabic faridat which means “gem,” but some believe it’s rooted in the Greek word peridona, meaning “giving plenty.” Perhaps that’s why Peridot is associated with prosperity and good fortune.
Peridot is the rare gem-quality variety of the common mineral olivine, which forms deep inside the earth’s mantle and is brought to the surface by volcanoes. In Hawaii, Peridot symbolizes the tears of Pele, the volcano goddess of fire who controls the flow of lava.
Rarely, Peridot is also found inside meteorites.
Peridot’s signature green colour comes from the composition of the mineral itself—rather than from trace impurities, as with many gems. That’s why this is one of few stones that only comes in one colour, though shades may vary from yellowish-green to olive to brownish-green, depending how much iron is present.
Most of the world’s Peridot supply comes from the San Carlos Reservation in Arizona. Other sources are China, Myanmar, Pakistan and Africa.
Peridot only measures 6.5 to 7 on the Mohs scale, so while the raw crystal is prone to cracking during cutting, the finished gemstones are fairly robust and easy to wear.
Also known as “the Evening Emerald” because its sparkling green hue looks brilliant any time of day, Peridot is said to possess healing properties that protect against nightmares and evil, ensuring peace and happiness. Babies born in August are lucky to be guarded by Peridot’s good fortune.
September’s birthstone is the Sapphire—a precious gem of wisdom, loyalty and nobility. This stone is said to focus the mind, encourage self-discipline and channel higher powers. When people say “Sapphire,” they’re usually referring to the royal blue variety of this gem, although it can occur in all colours of the rainbow (except red, which is classified as ruby instead). This lovely gem gives September-born babies a full spectrum of options when choosing the shade of birthstone that best represents them.
Although Sapphire typically refers to the rich blue gemstone variety of the mineral corundum, this royal gem actually occurs in a rainbow of hues. Sapphires come in every colour except red, which earn the classification of rubies instead. Trace elements like iron, titanium, chromium, copper and magnesium give naturally colourless corundum a tint of blue, yellow, purple, orange or green, respectively. Sapphires in any colour but blue are called “fancies.” Pink Sapphires, in particular, tow a fine line between ruby and Sapphire. In the U.S., these gems must meet a minimum colour saturation to be considered rubies. Pinkish orange Sapphires called padparadscha (from the Sri Lankan word for “lotus flower”) can actually draw higher prices than some blue Sapphires.
The name “Sapphire” comes from the Latin sapphirus and Greek sappheiros meaning “blue stone,” though those words may have originally referred to lapis lazuli. Some believe it originated from the Sanskrit word sanipriya which meant “dear to Saturn.” Sapphires are found in India, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, China, Australia, Brazil, Africa and North America (mainly Montana). Their origin can affect their value as much as colour, cut, clarity and carat size. Due to the remarkable hardness of Sapphires—which measure 9 on the Mohs scale, second only to diamond—they aren’t just valuable in jewellery , but also in industrial applications including scientific instruments, high-durability windows, watches and electronics.
Sapphires symbolize loyalty, nobility, sincerity and integrity. They are associated with focusing the mind, maintaining self-discipline and channeling higher powers.
Individuals born in October get to choose between two birthstones—Tourmaline and Opal. Each birthstone comes in a rainbow of shades and colour combinations, giving October babies a variety of options. Between Tourmaline (whose colour depends on trace elements in its chemical makeup) and Opal (which diffracts light to show a play of multiple colours), October’s birthstones offer a full spectrum of gemstones to suit anyone’s personal tastes.
The name “Opal” originates from the Greek word Opallios, which meant “to see a change in colour.” The Roman scholar Pliny used the word Opalus when he wrote about this gemstone’s kaleidoscopic “play” of colours that could simulate shades of any stone.
Opal’s characteristic “play-of-colour” was explained in the 1960s, when scientists discovered that it’s composed of microscopic silica spheres that diffract light to display various colours of the rainbow. These flashy gemstones are called “precious Opals;” those without play-of-colour are “common Opals.”
Dozens of Opal varieties exist, but only a few (like Fire Opal and Boulder Opal) are universally recognized. Opals are often referred to by their background “body colour”—black or white.
Opal’s classic country of origin is Australia. Seasonal rains soaked the parched Outback, carrying silica deposits underground into cracks between layers of rock. When the water evaporated, these deposits formed Opal. Sometimes, silica seeped into spaces around wood, seashells and skeletons, resulting in Opalized fossils. Since Opal was discovered in Australia around 1850, the country has produced 95 percent of the world’s supply. Opal is also mined in Mexico, Brazil, Honduras, Ethiopia, the Czech Republic and parts of the U.S., including Nevada and Idaho. The water content of Opal can range from three to 21 percent—usually between 6 and 10 in gem-quality material. This, combined with hardness of only 5.5 to 6 on the Mohs scale, makes Opal a delicate gemstone that can crack or “craze” under extreme temperature, dehydration, or direct light.
Wearing Opal is well worth the extra care, though. For centuries, people have associated this gemstone with good luck. Though some modern superstitions claim that Opals can be bad luck to anyone not born in October, this birthstone remains a popular choice.
Explore our range of Opals.
The name "Tourmaline" comes from the Sinhalese words tura mali, which mean "stone of mixed colours." As its name implies, Tourmaline stands apart from other gemstones with its broad spectrum of colours in every shade of the rainbow. Tourmaline is not one mineral, but a fairly complex group of minerals with different chemical compositions and physical properties. Certain trace elements produce distinct colours, and many resulting varieties have their own names:
Black Tourmaline, known as “schorl” is rich in iron, which causes dark shades from deep brown to bluish-black. This variety makes up 95 percent of all Tourmaline, though most of it isn’t gemstone-quality.
Dravite or brown Tourmaline is rich in magnesium, which causes colours ranging from brown to yellow. It’s named for the Drave District of Carinthina (now Slovenia) where it’s found.
Elbaite offers the widest range of gem-quality Tourmaline colours, due to lithium traces combined with other colouring elements.
Rubellite or red Tourmaline is caused by manganese, but if the colour becomes less vibrant under different light sources, it may be called pink Tourmaline.
Indicolite or blue Tourmaline can appear purplish blue or bluish green, depending on the amount of iron and titanium.
Verdelite or green Tourmaline can resemble Emerald, but if its colour is caused by chrome and vanadium, it’s called a chrome Tourmaline.
Paraíba Tourmaline is a vividly coloured purplish or greenish blue variety found in Paraíba, Brazil. It’s the most recently discovered, and because of its desirably intense colours, it’s one of the most valuable. The element copper is what is responsible for its vivid colours. Copper-bearing Tourmaline is also found in other parts of the world such as Mozambique and Nigeria, but only copper-bearing Tourmaline from Paraíba, Brazil is called “Paraíba Tourmaline.”
Achroite or colourless Tourmaline is rare.
Parti-coloured Tourmaline displays more than one colour, due to chemical fluctuations during crystallization. A common colour combination is green and pink. These are often cut in slices to reveal a red centre surrounded by a green rim, earning the name “watermelon Tourmaline.”
Tourmaline is mined in Brazil, Sri Lanka, Nigeria, Mozambique, Madagascar, Afghanistan, Pakistan and the U.S.—primarily Maine and California.
Tourmaline is desirable because of its sheer range of colour options. Combined with a good hardness of 7 to 7.5 on the Mohs scale, Tourmaline makes very wearable jewellery .
One of this gemstone’s most impressive traits is its ability to become electrically charged through heat (pyroelectricity) and through pressure (piezoelectricity). When charged, Tourmaline can act as a magnet by oscillating, and by attracting or repelling particles of dust.
Ancient magicians used black Tourmaline as a talisman to protect against negative energy and evil forces. Today, many still believe that it can shield against radiation, pollutants, toxins, and negative thoughts.
Individuals born in November can choose between two sunny gemstones to brighten up this chilly month. November’s birthstones, Topaz and Citrine, are both known for their calming energies, bringing warmth and fortune to those who wear them. Topaz and Citrine look so similar, in fact, that they’ve often been mistaken for one another throughout history. They are actually unrelated minerals, and Topaz occurs in a wide spectrum of colours far beyond yellow.
Both of November’s birthstones are fairly abundant and affordably priced, even in large sizes, which means everyone can find a way to fit Topaz and Citrine into their budget.
Through much of history, all yellow gems were considered Topaz and all Topaz was thought to be yellow. Topaz is actually available in many colours, and it’s likely not even related to the stones that first donned its name. The name Topaz derives from Topazios, the ancient Greek name for St. John’s Island in the Red Sea. Although the yellow stones famously mined there probably weren’t Topaz, it soon became the name for most yellowish stones.
Pure Topaz is colourless, but it can become tinted by impurities to take on any colour of the rainbow. Precious Topaz, ranging in colour from brownish orange to yellow, is often mistaken for “smoky quartz” or “Citrine quartz,” respectively—although quartz and Topaz are unrelated minerals. The most prized colour is Imperial Topaz, which features a vibrant orange hue with pink undertones. Blue Topaz, although increasingly abundant in the market, very rarely occurs naturally and is often caused by irradiation treatment.
The largest producer of quality Topaz is Brazil. Other sources include Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Russia, Australia, Nigeria, Germany, Mexico and the U.S., mainly California, Utah and New Hampshire. Measuring 8 on the Mohs scale, Topaz is a rather hard and durable gem. Its perfect cleavage can make it prone to chipping or cracking, but when cut correctly, Topaz makes very wearable jewellery.
Topaz is a soothing stone that has been said to calm tempers, cure madness and eliminate nightmares.
Explore our range of Topaz .
November’s second birthstone, Citrine, is the variety of quartz that ranges from pale yellow to brownish orange in colour. It takes its name from the citron fruit because of these lemon-inspired shades. The pale yellow colour of Citrine closely resembles Topaz, which explains why November’s two birthstones have been so easily confused throughout history. Citrine’s yellow hues are caused by traces of iron in quartz crystals. This occurs rarely in nature, so most Citrine on the market is made by heat treating other varieties of quartz—usually the more common, less expensive purple Amethyst and smoky quartz—to produce golden gems.
Brazil is the largest supplier of Citrine. Other sources include Spain, Bolivia, France, Russia, Madagascar and the U.S. (Colorado, North Carolina and California). Different geographies yield different shades of Citrine. With a hardness of 7 on the Mohs scale, Citrine is relatively durable against scratches and everyday wear-and-tear—making it a lovely option for large, wearable jewellery .
Citrine is sometimes known as the “healing quartz” for its ability to comfort, soothe and calm. It can release negative feelings, spark imagination and manifest fresh beginnings. It’s even called the “merchant’s stone” for its tendency to attract wealth and prosperity.
December’s birthstones offer three ways to fight the winter blues: Tanzanite, zircon, and turquoise—all of them, appropriately, best known for beautiful shades of blue. These gemstones range from the oldest on Earth (zircon), to one of the first mined and used in jewellery (turquoise), to one of the most recently discovered (Tanzanite). All of these stones are relatively inexpensive, but their beauty rivals even precious gemstones. colourless zircon is a convincing replacement for diamond, Tanzanite often substitutes Sapphire, and turquoise is unmatched in its hue of robin’s egg blue. Whatever your style preference or budget, one of December’s three birthstones will match your true blue desires.
Tanzanite is the exquisite blue-purple variety of the mineral zoisite that is only found in one part of the world. Named for its limited geographic origin in Tanzania, Tanzanite has quickly risen to popularity since its relatively recent discovery. Zoisite had been around more than a century and a half before this rare blue variety was found in 1967. Trace amounts of vanadium, mixed with extreme heat, cause the blue-purple colour—which ranges from pale blue to intense ultramarine with violet undertones. Due to pleochroism, Tanzanite can display different colours when viewed from different angles. Stones must be cut properly to highlight the more attractive blue and violet hues, and de-emphasize the undesirable brown tones. The majority of Tanzaniteon the market today is heat treated to minimise the brown colours found naturally, and to enhance the blue shades that can rival Sapphire.
Tanzanite is still only found on a few square miles of land in Tanzania, near majestic Mount Kilimanjaro. Its price and availability are directly tied to mines in this region, most of which are now slowing production significantly. Tanzanite measures 6.5 to 7 on the Mohs scale of hardness—which is not nearly as hard as the Sapphire it often substitutes. Given its vulnerability to scratch during daily wear and abrasion, tanzanite is better suited for earrings and pendants than rings. Between its deep blue colour and its limited supply, Tanzaniteis treasured by many—whether one is born in December or not.
Zircon is an underrated gemstone that’s often confused with synthetic cubic zirconia due to similar names and shared use as diamond simulants. Few people realise that zircon is a spectacular natural gemstone available in a variety of colours. The name “zircon” likely comes from the Persian word zargun, meaning “gold-coloured.” Others trace it to the Arabic zarkun, meaning “vermillion.” Given its wide range of colours—spanning red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and brown—both origins are plausible.
Zircon commonly occurs brownish red, which can be popular for its earth tones. However, most gem-quality stones are heat treated until colourless, gold or blue (the most popular colour). Blue zircon, in particular, is the alternative birthstone for December. Colour differences in zircon are caused by impurities, some of which (like uranium) can be slightly radioactive. These gemstones are also treated with heat to stabilise the radioactivity. While radiation can break down zircon’s crystal structure, it plays a crucial role in radiometric dating. Zircon, the oldest mineral on Earth, contains important clues about the formation of our planet.
Zircon from Australia dates back 4.4 billion years. Australia still leads the world in zircon mining, producing 37 percent of the world’s supply. Other sources include Thailand, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Cambodia, Canada, and the United States.
Since the Middle Ages, people have believed that zircon can induce sleep, ward off evil, and promote prosperity.
Admired since ancient times, turquoise is known for its distinct colour, which ranges from powdery blue to greenish robin’s egg blue. It’s one of few minerals to lend its name to anything that resembles its striking colour. The word “turquoise” dates back to the 13th century, drawing from the French expression pierre tourques, which referenced the “Turkish stone” brought to Europe from Turkey. Ancient Persia (now Iran) was the traditional source for sky blue turquoise. This colour is often called “Persian blue” today, regardless of its origin. The Sinai Peninsula in Egypt was also an important historical source.
The U.S. is now the world’s largest turquoise supplier. Nevada, New Mexico, California, and Colorado have produced turquoise, but Arizona leads in production by value, as well as quality. The stone’s popularity here makes it a staple in Native American jewellery. Turquoise is found in arid regions where rainwater dissolves copper in the soil, forming colourful nodular deposits when it combines with aluminium and phosphorus. Copper contributes blue hues, while iron and chrome add a hint of green. Some turquoise contains pieces of host rock, called matrix, which appear as dark webs or patches in the material. This can lower the stone’s value, although the uniform “spiderweb” pattern of Southwestern turquoise is attractive.
Turquoise is sensitive to direct sunlight and solvents like makeup, perfume, and natural oils. The hardest turquoise only measures 6 on the Mohs scale, which made this soft gemstone popular in carved talismans throughout history.
From ancient Egyptians to Persians, Aztecs and Native Americans, kings and warriors alike admired turquoise for thousands of years. It adorned everything from jewellery to ceremonial masks to weapons and bridles—granting power and protection, particularly against falls. Highly esteemed for its striking namesake colour and its ancient history, turquoise remains popular through time.